Fur trade, detail, Illustration © Francis Back
Settlers soon adopted one Native custom, smoking. Pipes with removable stems consisted of a pipe bowl, generally made of stone, and a wooden or bone stem.
Pipe bowl with removable stem
Late 17th / early 18th century
Archaeological digs on the site of Callière's residence
A pipe with a removable stem
Tobacco was probably used for the first time in South America, and gradually made its way up to Natives in Northeastern North America. As far back as 1535, Cartier noted in his journals that St. Lawrence Iroquoians smoked a herb “that kept them healthy and warm.”
During the 2002 dig campaign, a piece of a pipe associated with the building of Callière’s Residence was unearthed. The piece found on the dig site is a square pipe bowl, one face of which shows a hole for a pipe stem just where the bowl was broken. Pipes with removable stems consisted of a bowl and a wood or bone stem. According to archaeologist Roland Tremblay, this pipe was probably made of stone, but only a microscopic or chemical analysis could definitely show.
The pipe found on the site seems to be of the style in fashion in the late 17th century in the Montréal region. Perhaps it belonged to one of the workers who built Callière's residence. The archaeological context in which the piece was found supports that assumption.
TREMBLAY, Roland. 2003, "La pipe du lot 3D14 du site BjFj-101, 214 Place d'Youville, Montréal," archaeological analysis, Montréal (unpublished report).
Relations/Jacques Cartier; critical ed. by Michel Bideaux. Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1986. 498 p. "Bibliothèque du nouveau monde" collection. ISBN: 276060750X